This documentation page applies to the legacy Things Network Stack V2. Documentation for The Things Stack V3 is available here

LoRaWAN Architecture

LoRaWAN is a media access control (MAC) protocol for wide area networks. It is designed to allow low-powered devices to communicate with Internet-connected applications over long range wireless connections. LoRaWAN can be mapped to the second and third layer of the OSI model. It is implemented on top of LoRa or FSK modulation in industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands. The LoRaWAN protocols are defined by the LoRa Alliance and formalized in the LoRaWAN Specification which can be downloaded on the LoRa Alliance website.

LoRaWAN Overview Image: LoRaWAN Architecture

  • End Device, Node, Mote - an object with an embedded low-power communication device.

  • Gateway - antennas that receive broadcasts from End Devices and send data back to End Devices.

  • Network Server - servers that route messages from End Devices to the right Application, and back.

  • Application - a piece of software, running on a server.