ATtiny85 + RFM95 Temperature Sensor

DSC_1239

This is a quick and dirty sketch of a temperature sensor running on a ATtiny 85.
The ATtiny internally 8Mhz oscilator devided by 8 is used.
Brown-out detection is set to 1.8V.
The node has a fixed datarate and channel frequency, and sends the temperature data every minute
goes to sleep in power down mode and wakes up by the watchdog timer.

I use the LoraWan and AES encryption from Gerben den Hartog
and Arduino tinySPI Library http://github.com/JChristensen/tinySPI

#include <tinySPI.h>
#include <avr/sleep.h>
#include <avr/wdt.h>

#define DIO0 PB3
#define NSS  PB0
#define TEMP A2

// the value of resistor
#define SERIESRESISTOR 10000
// resistance at 25 degrees C
#define THERMISTORNOMINAL 10000
// temp. for nominal resistance (almost always 25 C)
#define TEMPERATURENOMINAL 25
// The beta coefficient of the thermistor (usually 3000-4000)
#define BCOEFFICIENT 3950 

// how many samples to take and average
#define NUMSAMPLES 5
int samples[NUMSAMPLES];         

unsigned int Frame_Counter_Tx = 0x0000;

static const unsigned char PROGMEM S_Table[16][16] = {
  {0x63,0x7C,0x77,0x7B,0xF2,0x6B,0x6F,0xC5,0x30,0x01,0x67,0x2B,0xFE,0xD7,0xAB,0x76},
  {0xCA,0x82,0xC9,0x7D,0xFA,0x59,0x47,0xF0,0xAD,0xD4,0xA2,0xAF,0x9C,0xA4,0x72,0xC0},
  {0xB7,0xFD,0x93,0x26,0x36,0x3F,0xF7,0xCC,0x34,0xA5,0xE5,0xF1,0x71,0xD8,0x31,0x15},
  {0x04,0xC7,0x23,0xC3,0x18,0x96,0x05,0x9A,0x07,0x12,0x80,0xE2,0xEB,0x27,0xB2,0x75},
  {0x09,0x83,0x2C,0x1A,0x1B,0x6E,0x5A,0xA0,0x52,0x3B,0xD6,0xB3,0x29,0xE3,0x2F,0x84},
  {0x53,0xD1,0x00,0xED,0x20,0xFC,0xB1,0x5B,0x6A,0xCB,0xBE,0x39,0x4A,0x4C,0x58,0xCF},
  {0xD0,0xEF,0xAA,0xFB,0x43,0x4D,0x33,0x85,0x45,0xF9,0x02,0x7F,0x50,0x3C,0x9F,0xA8},
  {0x51,0xA3,0x40,0x8F,0x92,0x9D,0x38,0xF5,0xBC,0xB6,0xDA,0x21,0x10,0xFF,0xF3,0xD2},
  {0xCD,0x0C,0x13,0xEC,0x5F,0x97,0x44,0x17,0xC4,0xA7,0x7E,0x3D,0x64,0x5D,0x19,0x73},
  {0x60,0x81,0x4F,0xDC,0x22,0x2A,0x90,0x88,0x46,0xEE,0xB8,0x14,0xDE,0x5E,0x0B,0xDB},
  {0xE0,0x32,0x3A,0x0A,0x49,0x06,0x24,0x5C,0xC2,0xD3,0xAC,0x62,0x91,0x95,0xE4,0x79},
  {0xE7,0xC8,0x37,0x6D,0x8D,0xD5,0x4E,0xA9,0x6C,0x56,0xF4,0xEA,0x65,0x7A,0xAE,0x08},
  {0xBA,0x78,0x25,0x2E,0x1C,0xA6,0xB4,0xC6,0xE8,0xDD,0x74,0x1F,0x4B,0xBD,0x8B,0x8A},
  {0x70,0x3E,0xB5,0x66,0x48,0x03,0xF6,0x0E,0x61,0x35,0x57,0xB9,0x86,0xC1,0x1D,0x9E},
  {0xE1,0xF8,0x98,0x11,0x69,0xD9,0x8E,0x94,0x9B,0x1E,0x87,0xE9,0xCE,0x55,0x28,0xDF},
  {0x8C,0xA1,0x89,0x0D,0xBF,0xE6,0x42,0x68,0x41,0x99,0x2D,0x0F,0xB0,0x54,0xBB,0x16}
};

unsigned char NwkSkey[16] = { 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00 };
unsigned char AppSkey[16] = { 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00 };
unsigned char DevAddr[4] = { 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00 };

// sleep cycles
volatile int sleep_count = 0;
const int sleep_total = 8; // 8*8s 64s sleep time

void setup() {
  SPI.setDataMode(SPI_MODE0);
  SPI.begin();
  
  pinMode(NSS, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(DIO0, INPUT);

  digitalWrite(NSS, HIGH);
  
  // Turn on the watch dog timer
  watchdogOn();

  //Initialize RFM module
  RFM_Init();

}

void loop() {
  
  goToSleep();

  if (sleep_count >= sleep_total) {  

    uint16_t temp;
	  uint8_t Data[2];
	  uint8_t Data_Length = 0x02;

    temp = readThermistor() * 100;
    Data[0] = (temp >> 8) & 0xff;
    Data[1] = temp & 0xff;
    
    LORA_Send_Data(Data, Data_Length, Frame_Counter_Tx);
    Frame_Counter_Tx++;
   
    // reset sleep count
    sleep_count = 0;
  }
}

/*
*****************************************************************************************
* Description : Function contstructs a LoRaWAN package and sends it
*
* Arguments   : *Data pointer to the array of data that will be transmitted
*               Data_Length nuber of bytes to be transmitted
*               Frame_Counter_Up  Frame counter of upstream frames
*****************************************************************************************
*/
void LORA_Send_Data(unsigned char *Data, unsigned char Data_Length, unsigned int Frame_Counter_Tx)
{
  //Define variables
  unsigned char i;

  //Direction of frame is up
  unsigned char Direction = 0x00;

  unsigned char RFM_Data[64];
  unsigned char RFM_Package_Length;

  unsigned char MIC[4];

  //Unconfirmed data up
  unsigned char Mac_Header = 0x40;

  unsigned char Frame_Control = 0x00;
  unsigned char Frame_Port = 0x01;

  //Encrypt the data
  Encrypt_Payload(Data, Data_Length, Frame_Counter_Tx, Direction);

  
  //Build the Radio Package
  RFM_Data[0] = Mac_Header;

  RFM_Data[1] = DevAddr[3];
  RFM_Data[2] = DevAddr[2];
  RFM_Data[3] = DevAddr[1];
  RFM_Data[4] = DevAddr[0];

  RFM_Data[5] = Frame_Control;

  RFM_Data[6] = (Frame_Counter_Tx & 0x00FF);
  RFM_Data[7] = ((Frame_Counter_Tx >> 8) & 0x00FF);

  RFM_Data[8] = Frame_Port;

  //Set Current package length
  RFM_Package_Length = 9;

  //Load Data
  for(i = 0; i < Data_Length; i++)
  {
    RFM_Data[RFM_Package_Length + i] = Data[i];
  }

  //Add data Lenth to package length
  RFM_Package_Length = RFM_Package_Length + Data_Length;
  
  //Calculate MIC
  Calculate_MIC(RFM_Data, MIC, RFM_Package_Length, Frame_Counter_Tx, Direction);

  //Load MIC in package
  for(i = 0; i < 4; i++)
  {
    RFM_Data[i + RFM_Package_Length] = MIC[i];
  }

  //Add MIC length to RFM package length
  RFM_Package_Length = RFM_Package_Length + 4;
 
  //Send Package
  RFM_Send_Package(RFM_Data, RFM_Package_Length);
}
/*
*****************************************************************************************
* Description : Funtion that writes a register from the RFM
*
* Arguments   : RFM_Address Address of register to be written
*         RFM_Data    Data to be written
*****************************************************************************************
*/

void RFM_Write(unsigned char RFM_Address, unsigned char RFM_Data)
{
  //Set NSS pin Low to start communication
  digitalWrite(NSS,LOW);

  //Send Addres with MSB 1 to make it a writ command
  SPI.transfer(RFM_Address | 0x80);
  //Send Data
  SPI.transfer(RFM_Data);

  //Set NSS pin High to end communication
  digitalWrite(NSS,HIGH);
}
/*
*****************************************************************************************
* Description: Function used to initialize the RFM module on startup
*****************************************************************************************
*/
void RFM_Init()
{
  //Switch RFM to sleep
  RFM_Write(0x01,0x00);

  //Set RFM in LoRa mode
  RFM_Write(0x01,0x80);
  
  //Set RFM in Standby mode wait on mode ready
  RFM_Write(0x01,0x81);
  /*
  while (digitalRead(DIO5) == LOW)
  {
  }
  */
  delay(10);

  //Set carrair frequency
  // 868.100 MHz / 61.035 Hz = 14222987 = 0xD9068B
  RFM_Write(0x06,0xD9);
  RFM_Write(0x07,0x06);
  RFM_Write(0x08,0x8B);

  //PA pin (maximal power)
  RFM_Write(0x09,0xFF);

  //BW = 125 kHz, Coding rate 4/5, Explicit header mode
  RFM_Write(0x1D,0x72);

  //Spreading factor 7, PayloadCRC On
  RFM_Write(0x1E,0xB4);

  //Rx Timeout set to 37 symbols
  RFM_Write(0x1F,0x25);

  //Preamble length set to 8 symbols
  //0x0008 + 4 = 12
  RFM_Write(0x20,0x00);
  RFM_Write(0x21,0x08);

  //Low datarate optimization off AGC auto on
  RFM_Write(0x26,0x0C);

  //Set LoRa sync word
  RFM_Write(0x39,0x34);

  //Set IQ to normal values
  RFM_Write(0x33,0x27);
  RFM_Write(0x3B,0x1D);

  //Set FIFO pointers
  //TX base adress
  RFM_Write(0x0E,0x80);
  //Rx base adress
  RFM_Write(0x0F,0x00);

  //Switch RFM to sleep
  RFM_Write(0x01,0x00);
}
/*
*****************************************************************************************
* Description : Function for sending a package with the RFM
*
* Arguments   : *RFM_Tx_Package Pointer to arry with data to be send
*               Package_Length  Length of the package to send
*****************************************************************************************
*/

void RFM_Send_Package(unsigned char *RFM_Tx_Package, unsigned char Package_Length)
{
  unsigned char i;
  unsigned char RFM_Tx_Location = 0x00;

  //Set RFM in Standby mode wait on mode ready
  
  RFM_Write(0x01,0x81);
  /*
  while (digitalRead(DIO5) == LOW)
  {
  }
  */
  delay(10);
  
  //Switch DIO0 to TxDone
  RFM_Write(0x40,0x40);

  //Set carrier frequency
  // 868.100 MHz / 61.035 Hz = 14222987 = 0xD9068B
  RFM_Write(0x06,0xD9);
  RFM_Write(0x07,0x06);
  RFM_Write(0x08,0x8B);

  //SF7 BW 125 kHz
  RFM_Write(0x1E,0x74); //SF7 CRC On
  RFM_Write(0x1D,0x72); //125 kHz 4/5 coding rate explicit header mode
  RFM_Write(0x26,0x04); //Low datarate optimization off AGC auto on

  //Set IQ to normal values
  RFM_Write(0x33,0x27);
  RFM_Write(0x3B,0x1D);

  //Set payload length to the right length
  RFM_Write(0x22,Package_Length);

  //Get location of Tx part of FiFo
  //RFM_Tx_Location = RFM_Read(0x0E);

  //Set SPI pointer to start of Tx part in FiFo
  //RFM_Write(0x0D,RFM_Tx_Location);
  RFM_Write(0x0D,0x80); // hardcoded fifo location according RFM95 specs

  //Write Payload to FiFo
  for (i = 0;i < Package_Length; i++)
  {
    RFM_Write(0x00,*RFM_Tx_Package);
    RFM_Tx_Package++;
  }

  //Switch RFM to Tx
  RFM_Write(0x01,0x83);

  //Wait for TxDone
  while(digitalRead(DIO0) == LOW)
  {
  }

  //Switch RFM to sleep
  RFM_Write(0x01,0x00);
}

void Encrypt_Payload(unsigned char *Data, unsigned char Data_Length, unsigned int Frame_Counter, unsigned char Direction)
{
  unsigned char i = 0x00;
  unsigned char j;
  unsigned char Number_of_Blocks = 0x00;
  unsigned char Incomplete_Block_Size = 0x00;

  unsigned char Block_A[16];

  //Calculate number of blocks
  Number_of_Blocks = Data_Length / 16;
  Incomplete_Block_Size = Data_Length % 16;
  if(Incomplete_Block_Size != 0)
  {
    Number_of_Blocks++;
  }

  for(i = 1; i <= Number_of_Blocks; i++)
  {
    Block_A[0] = 0x01;
    Block_A[1] = 0x00;
    Block_A[2] = 0x00;
    Block_A[3] = 0x00;
    Block_A[4] = 0x00;

    Block_A[5] = Direction;

    Block_A[6] = DevAddr[3];
    Block_A[7] = DevAddr[2];
    Block_A[8] = DevAddr[1];
    Block_A[9] = DevAddr[0];

    Block_A[10] = (Frame_Counter & 0x00FF);
    Block_A[11] = ((Frame_Counter >> 8) & 0x00FF);

    Block_A[12] = 0x00; //Frame counter upper Bytes
    Block_A[13] = 0x00;

    Block_A[14] = 0x00;

    Block_A[15] = i;

    //Calculate S
    AES_Encrypt(Block_A,AppSkey); //original
    

    //Check for last block
    if(i != Number_of_Blocks)
    {
      for(j = 0; j < 16; j++)
      {
        *Data = *Data ^ Block_A[j];
        Data++;
      }
    }
    else
    {
      if(Incomplete_Block_Size == 0)
      {
        Incomplete_Block_Size = 16;
      }
      for(j = 0; j < Incomplete_Block_Size; j++)
      {
        *Data = *Data ^ Block_A[j];
        Data++;
      }
    }
  }
}

void Calculate_MIC(unsigned char *Data, unsigned char *Final_MIC, unsigned char Data_Length, unsigned int Frame_Counter, unsigned char Direction)
{
  unsigned char i;
  unsigned char Block_B[16];
  
  unsigned char Key_K1[16] = {
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00
  };
  unsigned char Key_K2[16] = {
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00
  };

  //unsigned char Data_Copy[16];

  unsigned char Old_Data[16] = {
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00
  };
  unsigned char New_Data[16] = {
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00
  };
  
  
  unsigned char Number_of_Blocks = 0x00;
  unsigned char Incomplete_Block_Size = 0x00;
  unsigned char Block_Counter = 0x01;

  //Create Block_B
  Block_B[0] = 0x49;
  Block_B[1] = 0x00;
  Block_B[2] = 0x00;
  Block_B[3] = 0x00;
  Block_B[4] = 0x00;

  Block_B[5] = Direction;

  Block_B[6] = DevAddr[3];
  Block_B[7] = DevAddr[2];
  Block_B[8] = DevAddr[1];
  Block_B[9] = DevAddr[0];

  Block_B[10] = (Frame_Counter & 0x00FF);
  Block_B[11] = ((Frame_Counter >> 8) & 0x00FF);

  Block_B[12] = 0x00; //Frame counter upper bytes
  Block_B[13] = 0x00;

  Block_B[14] = 0x00;
  Block_B[15] = Data_Length;

  //Calculate number of Blocks and blocksize of last block
  Number_of_Blocks = Data_Length / 16;
  Incomplete_Block_Size = Data_Length % 16;

  if(Incomplete_Block_Size != 0)
  {
    Number_of_Blocks++;
  }

  Generate_Keys(Key_K1, Key_K2);

  //Preform Calculation on Block B0

  //Preform AES encryption
  AES_Encrypt(Block_B,NwkSkey);

  //Copy Block_B to Old_Data
  for(i = 0; i < 16; i++)
  {
    Old_Data[i] = Block_B[i];
  }

  //Preform full calculating until n-1 messsage blocks
  while(Block_Counter < Number_of_Blocks)
  {
    //Copy data into array
    for(i = 0; i < 16; i++)
    {
      New_Data[i] = *Data;
      Data++;
    }

    //Preform XOR with old data
    XOR(New_Data,Old_Data);

    //Preform AES encryption
    AES_Encrypt(New_Data,NwkSkey);

    //Copy New_Data to Old_Data
    for(i = 0; i < 16; i++)
    {
      Old_Data[i] = New_Data[i];
    }

    //Raise Block counter
    Block_Counter++;
  }

  //Perform calculation on last block
  //Check if Datalength is a multiple of 16
  if(Incomplete_Block_Size == 0)
  {
    //Copy last data into array
    for(i = 0; i < 16; i++)
    {
      New_Data[i] = *Data;
      Data++;
    }

    //Preform XOR with Key 1
    XOR(New_Data,Key_K1);

    //Preform XOR with old data
    XOR(New_Data,Old_Data);
    
    //Preform last AES routine
    // read NwkSkey from PROGMEM
    AES_Encrypt(New_Data,NwkSkey);
  }
  else
  {
    //Copy the remaining data and fill the rest
    for(i =  0; i < 16; i++)
    {
      if(i < Incomplete_Block_Size)
      {
        New_Data[i] = *Data;
        Data++;
      }
      if(i == Incomplete_Block_Size)
      {
        New_Data[i] = 0x80;
      }
      if(i > Incomplete_Block_Size)
      {
        New_Data[i] = 0x00;
      }
    }

    //Preform XOR with Key 2
    XOR(New_Data,Key_K2);

    //Preform XOR with Old data
    XOR(New_Data,Old_Data);

    //Preform last AES routine
    AES_Encrypt(New_Data,NwkSkey);
  }

  Final_MIC[0] = New_Data[0];
  Final_MIC[1] = New_Data[1];
  Final_MIC[2] = New_Data[2];
  Final_MIC[3] = New_Data[3];
}

void Generate_Keys(unsigned char *K1, unsigned char *K2)
{
  unsigned char i;
  unsigned char MSB_Key;

  //Encrypt the zeros in K1 with the NwkSkey
  AES_Encrypt(K1,NwkSkey);

  //Create K1
  //Check if MSB is 1
  if((K1[0] & 0x80) == 0x80)
  {
    MSB_Key = 1;
  }
  else
  {
    MSB_Key = 0;
  }

  //Shift K1 one bit left
  Shift_Left(K1);

  //if MSB was 1
  if(MSB_Key == 1)
  {
    K1[15] = K1[15] ^ 0x87;
  }

  //Copy K1 to K2
  for( i = 0; i < 16; i++)
  {
    K2[i] = K1[i];
  }

  //Check if MSB is 1
  if((K2[0] & 0x80) == 0x80)
  {
    MSB_Key = 1;
  }
  else
  {
    MSB_Key = 0;
  }

  //Shift K2 one bit left
  Shift_Left(K2);

  //Check if MSB was 1
  if(MSB_Key == 1)
  {
    K2[15] = K2[15] ^ 0x87;
  }
}

void Shift_Left(unsigned char *Data)
{
  unsigned char i;
  unsigned char Overflow = 0;
  //unsigned char High_Byte, Low_Byte;

  for(i = 0; i < 16; i++)
  {
    //Check for overflow on next byte except for the last byte
    if(i < 15)
    {
      //Check if upper bit is one
      if((Data[i+1] & 0x80) == 0x80)
      {
        Overflow = 1;
      }
      else
      {
        Overflow = 0;
      }
    }
    else
    {
      Overflow = 0;
    }

    //Shift one left
    Data[i] = (Data[i] << 1) + Overflow;
  }
}

void XOR(unsigned char *New_Data,unsigned char *Old_Data)
{
  unsigned char i;

  for(i = 0; i < 16; i++)
  {
    New_Data[i] = New_Data[i] ^ Old_Data[i];
  }
}

/*
*****************************************************************************************
* Title         : AES_Encrypt
* Description  : 
*****************************************************************************************
*/
void AES_Encrypt(unsigned char *Data, unsigned char *Key)
{
  unsigned char Row, Column, Round = 0;
  unsigned char Round_Key[16];
    unsigned char State[4][4];

  //  Copy input to State arry
  for( Column = 0; Column < 4; Column++ )
  {
    for( Row = 0; Row < 4; Row++ )
    {
      State[Row][Column] = Data[Row + (Column << 2)];
    }
  }

  //  Copy key to round key
  memcpy( &Round_Key[0], &Key[0], 16 );

  //  Add round key
  AES_Add_Round_Key( Round_Key, State );

  //  Preform 9 full rounds with mixed collums
  for( Round = 1 ; Round < 10 ; Round++ )
  {
    //  Perform Byte substitution with S table
    for( Column = 0 ; Column < 4 ; Column++ )
    {
      for( Row = 0 ; Row < 4 ; Row++ )
      {
        State[Row][Column] = AES_Sub_Byte( State[Row][Column] );
      }
    }

    //  Perform Row Shift
    AES_Shift_Rows(State);

    //  Mix Collums
    AES_Mix_Collums(State);

    //  Calculate new round key
    AES_Calculate_Round_Key(Round, Round_Key);

        //  Add the round key to the Round_key
    AES_Add_Round_Key(Round_Key, State);
  }

  //  Perform Byte substitution with S table whitout mix collums
  for( Column = 0 ; Column < 4 ; Column++ )
  {
    for( Row = 0; Row < 4; Row++ )
    {
      State[Row][Column] = AES_Sub_Byte(State[Row][Column]);
    }
  }
    
  //  Shift rows
  AES_Shift_Rows(State);

  //  Calculate new round key
  AES_Calculate_Round_Key( Round, Round_Key );

    //  Add round key
  AES_Add_Round_Key( Round_Key, State );

  //  Copy the State into the data array
  for( Column = 0; Column < 4; Column++ )
  {
    for( Row = 0; Row < 4; Row++ )
    {
      Data[Row + (Column << 2)] = State[Row][Column];
    }
  }
} // AES_Encrypt


/*
*****************************************************************************************
* Title         : AES_Add_Round_Key
* Description : 
*****************************************************************************************
*/
void AES_Add_Round_Key(unsigned char *Round_Key, unsigned char (*State)[4])
{
  unsigned char Row, Collum;

  for(Collum = 0; Collum < 4; Collum++)
  {
    for(Row = 0; Row < 4; Row++)
    {
      State[Row][Collum] ^= Round_Key[Row + (Collum << 2)];
    }
  }
} // AES_Add_Round_Key


/*
*****************************************************************************************
* Title         : AES_Sub_Byte
* Description : 
*****************************************************************************************
*/
unsigned char AES_Sub_Byte(unsigned char Byte)
{
//  unsigned char S_Row,S_Collum;
//  unsigned char S_Byte;
//
//  S_Row    = ((Byte >> 4) & 0x0F);
//  S_Collum = ((Byte >> 0) & 0x0F);
//  S_Byte   = S_Table [S_Row][S_Collum];

  //return S_Table [ ((Byte >> 4) & 0x0F) ] [ ((Byte >> 0) & 0x0F) ]; // original
  return pgm_read_byte(&(S_Table [((Byte >> 4) & 0x0F)] [((Byte >> 0) & 0x0F)]));
} //    AES_Sub_Byte


/*
*****************************************************************************************
* Title         : AES_Shift_Rows
* Description : 
*****************************************************************************************
*/
void AES_Shift_Rows(unsigned char (*State)[4])
{
  unsigned char Buffer;

  //Store firt byte in buffer
  Buffer      = State[1][0];
  //Shift all bytes
  State[1][0] = State[1][1];
  State[1][1] = State[1][2];
  State[1][2] = State[1][3];
  State[1][3] = Buffer;

  Buffer      = State[2][0];
  State[2][0] = State[2][2];
  State[2][2] = Buffer;
  Buffer      = State[2][1];
  State[2][1] = State[2][3];
  State[2][3] = Buffer;

  Buffer      = State[3][3];
  State[3][3] = State[3][2];
  State[3][2] = State[3][1];
  State[3][1] = State[3][0];
  State[3][0] = Buffer;
}   //  AES_Shift_Rows


/*
*****************************************************************************************
* Title         : AES_Mix_Collums
* Description : 
*****************************************************************************************
*/
void AES_Mix_Collums(unsigned char (*State)[4])
{
  unsigned char Row,Collum;
  unsigned char a[4], b[4];
    
    
  for(Collum = 0; Collum < 4; Collum++)
  {
    for(Row = 0; Row < 4; Row++)
    {
      a[Row] =  State[Row][Collum];
      b[Row] = (State[Row][Collum] << 1);

      if((State[Row][Collum] & 0x80) == 0x80)
      {
        b[Row] ^= 0x1B;
      }
    }
        
    State[0][Collum] = b[0] ^ a[1] ^ b[1] ^ a[2] ^ a[3];
    State[1][Collum] = a[0] ^ b[1] ^ a[2] ^ b[2] ^ a[3];
    State[2][Collum] = a[0] ^ a[1] ^ b[2] ^ a[3] ^ b[3];
    State[3][Collum] = a[0] ^ b[0] ^ a[1] ^ a[2] ^ b[3];
  }
}   //  AES_Mix_Collums



/*
*****************************************************************************************
* Title         : AES_Calculate_Round_Key
* Description : 
*****************************************************************************************
*/
void AES_Calculate_Round_Key(unsigned char Round, unsigned char *Round_Key)
{
  unsigned char i, j, b, Rcon;
  unsigned char Temp[4];

    
    //Calculate Rcon
  Rcon = 0x01;
  while(Round != 1)
  {
    b = Rcon & 0x80;
    Rcon = Rcon << 1;
        
    if(b == 0x80)
    {
      Rcon ^= 0x1b;
    }
    Round--;
  }
    
  //  Calculate first Temp
  //  Copy laste byte from previous key and subsitute the byte, but shift the array contents around by 1.
    Temp[0] = AES_Sub_Byte( Round_Key[12 + 1] );
    Temp[1] = AES_Sub_Byte( Round_Key[12 + 2] );
    Temp[2] = AES_Sub_Byte( Round_Key[12 + 3] );
    Temp[3] = AES_Sub_Byte( Round_Key[12 + 0] );

  //  XOR with Rcon
  Temp[0] ^= Rcon;

  //  Calculate new key
  for(i = 0; i < 4; i++)
  {
    for(j = 0; j < 4; j++)
    {
      Round_Key[j + (i << 2)]  ^= Temp[j];
      Temp[j]                   = Round_Key[j + (i << 2)];
    }
  }
}   //  AES_Calculate_Round_Key

float readThermistor() {
	uint8_t i;
  float average;
	float temp;
	
	// take N samples in a row, with a slight delay
	for (i=0; i< NUMSAMPLES; i++) {
	  samples[i] = analogRead(TEMP);
	  delay(10);
	}

	// average all the samples out
	average = 0;
	for (i=0; i< NUMSAMPLES; i++) {
	  average += samples[i];
	}
	average /= NUMSAMPLES;

	// convert the value to resistance
	average = 1023 / average - 1;
	average = SERIESRESISTOR / average;

	temp = average / THERMISTORNOMINAL;         
	temp = log(temp);                           
	temp /= BCOEFFICIENT;                       
	temp += 1.0 / (TEMPERATURENOMINAL + 273.15); 
	temp = 1.0 / temp;                          
	temp -= 273.15;                              	
	
	return temp;
} 

void watchdogOn() {
  // clear various "reset" flags
  MCUSR = 0;
  // allow changes, disable reset
  WDTCR = (1 << WDCE) | (1 << WDE);
  // set interrupt mode and an interval 
  WDTCR = (1 << WDIE) | (1 << WDP3) | (1 << WDP0); // set WDIE, and 8 seconds delay
  wdt_reset();  // pat the dog
}

void goToSleep() {
  set_sleep_mode(SLEEP_MODE_PWR_DOWN); // Set sleep mode.
  noInterrupts (); // timed sequence follows
  sleep_enable();
  interrupts (); // guarantees next instruction executed
  sleep_cpu(); // Enter sleep mode.
  // After waking from watchdog interrupt the code continues from this point.

  sleep_disable(); // Disable sleep mode after waking.
}

ISR(WDT_vect) {
  sleep_count++; // keep track of how many sleep cycles have been completed.
}

i hope it can be useful for somebody :grin:

14 Likes

very nice tnx :sunglasses:

* immediate searching in my junkbox but no thermistor to be found and a ‘normal’ tempsensor will never fit in memory I think

x560

1 Like

Hi, are you using the attiny internal thermometer?

@Dennizr has added onto the miniaturized LMIC - originally for attiny by @rharte - would be interesting to see if that still works on the attiny! Would be my dream come true.
The library is here: https://github.com/Kaasfabriek/Junior_Internet_of_Things_2018/blob/master/Arduino_Junior_IOT_2018_5_slim_lmic_library/lmic_slim.zip

I believe it now uses all channels and has peer-to-peer capabilities as well. Feedback and improvements are welcome!

2 Likes

The sensor has an external thermistor on the ADC2 (PB4) input channel.

For channel switching simply add this switch statement in the RFM_Send_Package() function

// change the channel of the RFM module
  switch (TCNT0 % 3) {
    case 0x00: //Channel 0 868.100 MHz / 61.035 Hz = 14222987 = 0xD9068B
        RFM_Write(0x06,0xD9);
        RFM_Write(0x07,0x06);
        RFM_Write(0x08,0x8B);
        break;
      case 0x01: //Channel 1 868.300 MHz / 61.035 Hz = 14226264 = 0xD91358
        RFM_Write(0x06,0xD9);
        RFM_Write(0x07,0x13);
        RFM_Write(0x08,0x58);
        break;
      case 0x02: //Channel 2 868.500 MHz / 61.035 Hz = 14229540 = 0xD92024
        RFM_Write(0x06,0xD9);
        RFM_Write(0x07,0x20);
        RFM_Write(0x08,0x24);
        break;
  }
1 Like

And if you would like to use a semi-random key to select the channel, just take a byte from the encrypted payload (or a byte from the MIC) and mask-out the 3 least significant bits as a pointer to the channel

1 Like

Very nice, I have a few ATtiny’s and give it a try. Thanks for sharing!

@BoRRoZ, it will probably fit in memory easy but the question is if you have I/O available :slight_smile:

mmmmmmm… indeed :slight_smile:

a while back I bought a handfull of these boards for almost nothing… never used them.
reading this topic I installed the digispark driver and got blink to work :slight_smile:

https://diyprojects.io/tutorial-program-cjmcu-attiny85-lilytiny-lilypad/

comp

I made some Ampere Tests today with the node alone sending two dummy bytes every minute. During sleep the amperage was 0,24mA.

DSC_1245

With the thermistor connected, the current strength is slightly higher 0.39 mA due to the 10K resistor.
I do not know if I can bring it much lower. All tips are welcome !!!

DSC_1249

I think I found the solution with disabling the ADC ADCSRA &= ~(1<<ADEN);
in sleep mode saves about 235uA.
without sensor 5uA in sleep mode I am happy :yum:

And with the thermistor connected 153uA.

ttn

2 Likes

which bootloader do you use ?
will it work with v2.0 ?

why the bod @ 1v8 ?

I didn’t test with 2.0v yet and disabled the BOD for low power consumption.
Now I use this fuse settings -U lfuse:w:0x52:m -U hfuse:w:0xdf:m -U efuse:w:0xff:m
With the USBtinyISP for programming no bootloader is needed

2 Likes

Great example! thanks for share it will be so usefull for me, in this holidays i will work on a version which supports partially class c, wish me luck!

good luck :wink:

x565
some ATtiny85 eBay products

1 Like

I like the ATtiny programmer shield it looks ancient. :joy:

1 Like

Thanks for the extra effort of bitbanging all the low level stuff…

All credits go to Gerben den Hartog I only rearranged it a bit. :+1:

Sure … but It’s still nice to see a experimenal Lora version of the outdated Tiny TX concept from Nathan Chantrell…

I had succesfull working on this code to be used as class c, but the code i worked on was for an Arduino Pro Mini, now its time to port it to the Tinny if annyone needs somenthing like that for an arduino uno or pro mini i left the link to the gist.

I’m Working on the message decryption part right now but at least right now im receiving

Hope it be usefull!

I will keep working in this code, and create a repository but by now this is what i have :smiley:

2 Likes

It seems that you have a pin shortage on the ATtiny if you need DIO5 and you read from the RFM module.
SPI 4x (MISO,MOSI,SCK,SS) VCC, GND, DOI0,DIO5 that’s it nothing left for temp sensing.

1 Like