End node not showing up on my TTN application

Hi everyone!

I am trying to setup a simple network with an end-node (The Things Uno) and a gateway RAK2245 HAT on RPI4.

I have completed the setup for both devices, the things uno seems to be transmitting the data as I am seeing it in the arduino serial monitor, and the gateway seems to be online in the TTN console, receiving a gateway status every few seconds, the GPS works too.

However the end node doesn’t show up. The activation I have done is ABP, following the official fuide from the things industries: The Things Uno | The Things Stack for LoRaWAN

I assume that the problem stems from the fact that the gateway must not be able to detect the data that the end node transmits. The journalctl of the gateway doesn’t show any errors.

What other steps could I try in order to troubleshoot this?

Are the GW and TTU both configured for the same frequency plan. If using ABP have you told the TSLNS what frequencies you are using (the correct ones for the plan used, beyond any mandatories) via the console at registration? How far apart are the devices? Are the antennae correctly attached and the right polarity wrt connector types etc. Are the devices the right version for your territory?

Yes to every question except one! I have triple and quadruple-checked all the above, but regarding the antennae, I only have used one antenna for my gateway. For the end node I am not using any antenna. Is this mandatory?

Also, the devices are around 5-10 meters apart, with a wall inbetween.

Also, does it make sense that the gateway doesn’t get any messages from other devices in the city (from other projects maybe) even though I have placed it in an indoors apartment of a city center?

My TTIGs (TheThings indoor gateways) are placed indoor but do receive the occasional message from devices on TheThingsNetwork and from other networks. Receiving nothing at all seems a bit odd.

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As they say in the property market - location, location, location! It will all depend…

Which city and how much activity in the area? I have many GW’s that only get messages from my/clients devices, even in quite large towns/cities, when viewed overmany hours/a few days - though most see some transitory traffic when viewed over longer periods…

Are you absolutely sure that the antenna part is all correct?

Like the UFL/SMA cable properly pressed on the board. Not having mixed up the GPS and LoRa antennas. And perhaps quite tricky: not have some mixup of regular and inverse polarity connections between the board and the antenna?

Probably useful to show what your device is telling… as well as the sketch that you uploaded to it?

Not mandatory but also the best way to convert the RF signal in to electromagnetic radiation aka radio waves.

There is also a realistic possibility of damaging the radios output stage if it is unable to dump the energy in to an antenna.

However even without the antenna the close proximity of the device & gateway often causes issues - this is Long Range aka LoRa - for test purposes you should have a minimum of 5m & a substantial wall (pref brick) between the gateway & the device. Otherwise it can overload the gateway &/or device input stages and the signal isn’t able to be decoded.

Depending on the construction of your building will depend on the ability of the gateway to be able to hear signals from outside, if the heart beat messages are appearing on the console you can reasonably assume it’s OK.

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